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Browsing Category "Disease"

MEASLES : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

- Saturday, April 22, 2017 No Comments


Measles is a viral infection characterized by the appearance of a rash throughout the body and is highly contagious. Measles can be very disturbing and leads to more serious complications. Symptoms of measles begin to appear about one to two weeks after the virus enters the body. These symptoms include:

HICCUPS : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

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Hiccups or singultus is a discharge of a typical sound like 'hic' due to closing of the vocal cords suddenly triggered by the contraction of the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the muscle membrane separator thoracic and abdominal cavity which has an important role in the respiratory system.

Astigmatism : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

- Monday, April 17, 2017 No Comments

Understanding Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a vision disorder caused by defects in the curvature of the lens or cornea resulting in distorted or blurred sight. Astigmatism often occurs at birth, but can also be caused by an injury suffered by the eye at a later date, or complications from eye surgery.
Astigmatism : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Asthmatics - understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

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Understanding Asthma

Asthma is a type of long-term or chronic disease of the respiratory tract characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways that causes shortness or difficulty breathing. In addition to difficulty breathing, asthma sufferers can also experience other symptoms such as chest pain, coughing, and wheezing. Asthma affects all ages, whether young or old.
Although the exact cause of asthma is not known clearly, but there are some things that often trigger it, such as cigarette smoke, dust, animal dander, exercise, cold air, viral infections, or even exposure to chemical substances.
For someone who has asthma, respiratory tract more sensitive than other people who do not live with this condition. When the lungs become irritated trigger on, then the muscles of the respiratory tract of asthmatics will become stiff and makes the channel narrows. In addition, there will be increased production of mucus that makes breathing more difficult.
asthmatics -  understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

ASCARIASIS - understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

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Ascariasis is an infection caused by roundworms. This is a type of parasitic worm that can live and multiply in the human intestine.
Infections caused by these worms usually do not cause specific symptoms. However, the number of roundworm that is very much in the gut could potentially trigger symptoms and serious complications.
ASCARIASIS -  understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

ARRHYTHMIAS - Symptoms, Causes and how to treat

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Understanding Arrhythmias

Arrhythmias are heart problems that occur when the organ beats too fast, too slow, or irregularly. It is caused by electrical impulses that controls the heartbeat is not working properly.

ARRHYTHMIAS - Symptoms, Causes and how to treat

Anthrax - Symptoms, causes and treatment

- Saturday, April 15, 2017 No Comments

Understanding Anthrax

Anthrax is a serious and rare disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis . These bacteria usually infects farm animals and animals used in the game, such as rodeo, bull-races, or pitting. Bacteria B.anthracis produces spores that can spread the infection.
Anthrax - Symptoms, causes and treatment

Transmission to humans can occur by inhaling anthrax spores or anthrax diseased meat-eating animals. Up to now there is no medical evidence that shows that the bacteria that cause anthrax can be transmitted between humans. However, a healthy person has the possibility of getting infected if he had a wound in the skin which is in contact directly with existing wound in the skin of patients with anthrax.
Several factors can increase a person's risk of anthrax infection are:
  • Contact with the skin or fur of animals in the region at risk of anthrax.
  • Conducting studies related to the anthrax in the laboratory.
  • Take care of game animals (rodeo, bull-races, pitting).
  • Injecting drug use, such as heroin.
  • Having a job as a veterinarian, especially those dealing with livestock.
  • Activity in the area of ​​high risk exposure to anthrax.
If not promptly treated, anthrax can cause serious complications such as inflammation of the membranes and cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord (meningitis), which then lead to severe bleeding and lead to death.

symptoms of Anthrax

In most cases of anthrax, symptoms will appear approximately 7 days after a person is exposed to bacteria. However, if the transmission over the air, then the symptoms will usually only visible a few weeks after inhalation of bacterial spores.
The symptoms of anthrax are distinguished by how it is transmitted, namely:
  • Cutaneous anthrax. In this kind of anthrax, the bacteria infect the body through cuts or other wounds in the skin. Skin anthrax is the most common kind, and the lightest. With proper treatment, rarely causes death. Symptoms include itchy bumps like insect bites on the infected area. These lumps then become painless ulcer with a black central section. In addition, there can be swelling of the lymph nodes near the site of the wound.
  • Gastrointestinal anthrax. Anthrax bacteria into the patient's body through the consumption of anthrax-infected animals, which are not cooked until done. Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms are nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, decreased appetite, fever, severe diarrhea with feces mixed with blood, sore throat and difficulty swallowing, and swelling of the neck.
  • Anthrax inhalation. Anthrax This type develops when the patient inhaling anthrax spores. Inhalation anthrax is the most lethal kind. The initial symptoms of anthrax resemble the symptoms of this type of flu, such as fever, sore throat, muscle aches, and fatigue. Then there is discomfort in the chest, become short of breath, nausea, coughing up blood, pain on swallowing, high fever, difficulty breathing, shock, and meningitis occur.
  • Anthrax injection. Usually the bacteria enter the body through the injection of illegal drugs. This species is the most recent way of transmission was found. Symptoms include redness at the injection site, severe swelling, shock, multi-organ failure, and meningitis.

Causes Anthrax

Anthrax spores produced by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis contained in the soil. These spores can live without a host inactive for several years.
Farm animals such as goats, sheep, cows, or horses generally are hosts for anthrax spores. And most humans infected by anthrax of the skin or meat of animals infected with anthrax.
Anthrax is not transmitted from one person to another. Therefore, a person who made contact with anthrax patients do not need to be immunized or treated. However, one needs to be vigilant if they are in the same region with the spread of anthrax patients, or exposure to the source of the infection (livestock, game animals) are the same.

Anthrax diagnosis

In diagnosing anthrax, the initial examination is to exclude other diseases that have similar symptoms, such as flu or pneumonia with similar symptoms of inhalation anthrax. After that, it can do further examinations, such as:
  • Pathological examination Suspected fluid from the wound or skin tissue samples on the infected area is removed for examination.
  • Examination of blood. Checking if there are any anthrax bacteria in the blood of patients.
  • Examination of dirt. Dirt patients were examined to confirm the diagnosis of gastrointestinal anthrax.
  • Scanning X-rays or CT- scan of the chest, performed on patients suspected of inhalation anthrax.
  • UNCTION lumbar (s Pinal tap The sampling of cerebrospinal fluid from the patient's spine area to be examined further, in order to confirm the diagnosis of meningitis caused by anthrax.

Anthrax treatment

Antibiotics are commonly given as a treatment for anthrax is ciprofloxacin, doxycycline , and levofloxacin.
Anthrax treatment can be effective if done as soon as possible, and often by using a combination of a number of antibiotics. Several factors can affect the success rate of treatment, are:
  • Age of the patient.
  • The general health condition of the patient.
  • Size infected body part.
Inhalation anthrax patients often do not respond to treatment with either, because the bacteria already produce a lot of toxins that can not be eliminated entirely by drugs. While the anthrax injection, some cases can be cured by lifting the infected body tissue surgically.

Anthrax prevention

To prevent contracting anthrax, are advised to eat meat cooked and avoid contact with infected animals.
Anthrax can also be prevented by administering the anthrax vaccine. However, this vaccine is not intended for the public, and is not recommended for children and the elderly. Until now, the vaccine is only recommended for members of the military, scientists who studied anthrax, and people with high-risk professions affected by this disease.

ANOREXIA NERVOSA - understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

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Understanding Anorexia Nervosa

16-17 years of age are considered vulnerable age for this disorder to begin to emerge. The majority of anorexia sufferers from among teenage girls and adult women.
To make their bodies as thin as possible, people with anorexia will strive to limit eating to a minimum, using drugs (such as laxatives and appetite suppressant), and exercising excessively.
Some of them would even attempt brings back food that has been consumed, a hallmark of eating disorder called bulimia nervosa . However, when the average bulimia sufferers have normal weight or more, anorexia weigh less.

Symptoms of anorexia nervosa and other related psychological problems

Those who suffer from anorexia can be identified by the following symptoms:
  • Significant weight loss and looked very thin.
  • Always looking in the mirror shape.
  • Considering the body almost every time.
  • Often brings back food that has been eaten.
  • Like lied when asked if they had already eaten.
  • Is taking into account the amount of calories, fat, and sugar in foods.
  • Berlebihan.Suka exercise often take drugs laxatives and appetite suppressant makan.Mudah offended
  • Experienced health problems as a result of anorexia itself, such as fatigue, dehydration , low blood pressure, dizziness , hair loss and dry skin.
Anorexia can also be associated with other psychiatric problems such as depression, low self-esteem, anxiety, alcohol abuse, and injury to yourself

The cause of anorexia nervosa

The cause of anorexia nervosa  is certainly still unclear. Most specialists believe that the disorder comes from a combination of a number of factors, such as psychological, environmental, and genetic or biological.

The diagnosis of anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa recognizable average of physical sufferers who looked very thin. However, doctors still must ask their diet to ensure the emaciation due to eating disorders and not other diseases.
In addition, it is likely the doctor will also check on the hair, skin, blood pressure, lung conditions and heart. Even the X-ray and blood examination will be carried out if necessary.

Support anorexia sufferers to want to get help

A small number of patients with anorexia nervosa who do not realize that they are suffering from the condition, but most know and will not seek treatment for fear until finally they hide this problem in a very long time. Therefore it is important for us as an outsider to recognize this condition when there is a relative or friend who experienced it.
If you have family or friends who suffer from anorexia, do subtle approach and persuaded to get them to get medical help. Persuading people with anorexia to want to seek treatment is not easy. Usually they will assume that what they have done the right thing and will refuse to admit that they really are in trouble.
That's why patience and continuous support is extremely important for the recovery of anorexics. Never criticize or make them feel depressed because it will only worsen the situation. Convey that you support the persuasion and sheer fear for their health.

Overview of the treatment of anorexia

Anorexia nervosa should be treated as early as possible so that the greater the chance of recovery. The goal of treatment of anorexia is to change their view of healthy body weight and improve their diet.
Most cases of anorexia are handled on an outpatient basis and a handful of other cases, such as severe cases of anorexia sufferers, handled with care hospital. In addition to sensitize the people with that pattern of life in which they live is wrong, this treatment aims to enable them to obtain the ideal weight back safely.
Things that includes handling of anorexia include psychotherapy and suggestions related to food and nutrition. So that appropriate treatment can be done, the physician should adjust to the physical, psychological, and social state of the people with anorexia.
Treatment of anorexia can not be done instantly. To recover fully, it could take several years. When treatment is not impossible for anorexia patients to relapse and return to unhealthy eating patterns.

Complications may occur

Anorexia can lead to other health problems are quite serious if not treated successfully in the long term. Some complications of anorexia nervosa  are:
  • Hair loss
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Decreased blood pressure and respiratory rate of
  • Heart failure
  • damage to the brain
  • Menstruation is not smooth
  • Anemia
  • Kidney failure
  • sterility
  • Liquid electrolyte imbalance
  • osteoporosis
  • Constipation
  • Deaths from malnutrition or suicide

Prevention of anorexia nervosa              

Anorexia nervosa can not be prevented completely. However, through education of parents of children from an early age in the family, can have a big impact on reducing the risk of this condition when they were teenagers and adults. Education is meant is to teach and practice a healthy diet strictly. In addition, children also need to be taught the proper insight about the image of the ideal body shape.
If in our families there that are starting to show signs toward anorexia, immediately consult a physician to prevent this condition worse.

Symptoms Of Anorexia Nervosa

Because people with anorexia are obsessed to lose weight as low as possible, the main symptom of this condition is a weight loss below the healthy limit.
In an effort to satisfy their obsession with a very thin body, people with anorexia will perform a variety of ways, including by limiting servings of food, regurgitating food that has been eaten, and lied when asked if they had already eaten.
Anorexics usually always wear loose clothing and regularly measuring, weighing, or observation of their bodies in front of the mirror. In addition, they will often exercise excessively and taking drugs appetite suppressants or laxative. Patients can also take drugs diuretics (fluid discharge) and enema (triggers emptying of the bowel).
Body weight dissatisfaction will make anorexia sufferers lack self- confidence. They feel that their self esteem is affected by weight. As a result of this self distrust makes them isolate themselves and are no longer interested in socializing with other people. Because it is not a bit of anorexia sufferers who ultimately have problems in relationships with other people, especially in the family, friendship, education, and employment.
Of these symptoms, it is clear that anorexia is a psychological problem. Anorexia also cause physical health problems.

Physical problems that arise

Perceived physical problems caused by anorexia sufferers at least the intake of food, especially in the long term. Some of these problems are:
  • Fatigue
  • Anemia
  • Headache and dizziness
  • bloating
  • Constipation
  • Insomnia
  • Bad breath and dental problems due to frequent vomit
  • Swelling of the arms and legs
  • Fingers and toes become bluish due to poor circulation
  • Fever
  • Hair loss
  • Dry skin or yellowish
  • Problems in physical growth and puberty in children and adolescents
  • Insomnia
  • Irregular heartbeat or arrhythmia
  • Not resistant to cold temperatures
  • Dehydration
  • Low blood pressure
  • The growth of fine hair all over their bodies
  • The nails are easily broken
  • Stomach ache
  • Menstrual disorders in women.
  • fainting

Causes Of Anorexia Nervosa

The exact cause of anorexia nervosa is still unclear. Most specialists believe these disorders arise from a combination of a number of factors, such as psychological, environmental, and genetic or biological.
Psychologically, fear and worries about body fat, has led to an obsession and a strong impetus to the self anorexia sufferers to lose weight. They consider the perfect body shape is a skinny body. However, because it is always their dissatisfaction in them, in the end it makes them perform excessive dieting and anorexia trapped inside. In addition, people with anorexia also be closed emotionally and prone to depression or stress.

Influence of environment on anorexia nervosa

The mindset formed by environmental influences can trigger anorexia, for example, is advertising in the mass media. Today the thin body is considered as an essential condition of beauty. Thought is then amplified and propagated by advertising, so there is a bit of the affected communities, especially teenagers.
The reason why people with anorexia majority of teens are many body changes, hormonal changes and periods of stress or anxiety. At this time, confidence is very low teens so they are often indecisive and impressionable. Besides the influence of hormones, ridicule and pressure experienced by a teenager at school can trigger anorexia.
Meanwhile, anorexia nervosa can also arise due to the demands of the profession and the events were disappointing, such as a breakup. Examples of professions that are prone to anorexia is an athlete, model, dancer, actress, and actor.

Anorexia is due to hereditary factors and biological

Someone who has a family history of people with eating disorders, depression , or a drug addict, is believed to have a greater risk of developing anorexia.
In addition to heredity or genetics, suspected anorexia can occur due to changes in hormone levels and brain function as well. Such changes may affect parts of the brain that controls appetite or trigger feelings of guilt and worry due to a lot of eating.

Diagnosis Of Anorexia Nervosa

In diagnosing anorexia, first the doctor will ask you first about diet and weight of the patient, for example, how far he's worried about her weight and does often brings back food that has been consumed.
After that the doctor will also collect data on the patient's weight, especially if the patient experiences a significant weight loss.
To determine a healthy weight, your doctor will calculate the body mass index or body mass index (BMI). BMI is a calculation of weight refers to the ratio of a person's weight and height. Benefits BMI calculation is to determine whether someone has advantages, disadvantages or healthy weight.
The formula used in the calculation of BMI is body weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (m²). For example, if the patient's weight 66 kg and height is 1.65 meters, then the calculation is 66 / 1.65 × 1.65 = 24.24 kg / m²
BMI is normal for adult Asians is 18.5-22.9 (kg / m2), whereas the normal BMI for children and adolescents depending on their age. In adults, the condition of anorexia may be suspected if the BMI is under 17.
To diagnose anorexia nervosa does not require specific laboratory tests. But if the doctor suspects a patient drastic weight loss was not caused by anorexia but by other diseases, so a blood test and X-ray examination may be performed to make sure.
In addition, laboratory tests will also be carried out to see their organ damage due to weight loss. A person prone to heart problems if anorexic, among which are low blood pressure, arrhythmias, heart valve disease, an accumulation of fluid or edema (hands, feet, and face), and heart failure. To ensure this, the doctor will perform blood pressure checks, pulse, examination of the hands and feet, as well as, an electrocardiogram.
The doctor may also ask the patient to perform simple physical movements to see if the patient's muscle strength disrupted due to anorexia. Examples of physical movement tests are squat, stand up, and shift when seated.

Treatment Of Anorexia Nervosa

Sometimes treatment must be done by force if conditions of anorexia has entered a dangerous and life-threatening stage sufferers. In cases like this, the family should be immediately brought to the hospital sufferers to quickly dealt with.
Treatment of anorexia nervosa usually done by combining psychotherapy with supervised weight recovery. It is important to carry out the treatment as early as possible, especially if the patient has lost a large amount of weight. In addition, the immediate treatment can reduce the risk of complications.

For Emergency Medical Treatment and Physical Impact

If the severity of anorexia nervosa has been very severe with symptoms of malnutrition that can lead to death, then treatment in a hospital needs to be done. In this case the patient will be given intravenous fluids or fitted with a nasogastric tube through the nose to distribute food. Hospitalization is intended to deal with dehydration, heart rhythm problems, and electrolyte imbalance.
Handling by the hospital is also necessary if patients had signs of severe depression that leads to suicide attempts. Therefore it is important for families to always monitor the psychological condition of patients with anorexia so that this can be prevented.

Gain weight regularly and safely

As part of the treatment plan, the doctor will include suggestions on how to raise the patient's weight safely. The doctor will also continue to monitor the patient's physical health. For pediatric patients and adolescents, their height will be checked regularly to ensure they are growing normally.
Normal weight gain should be gradual. As a first step, the therapist will usually ask the patient to try to eat regularly, even small meals. This therapy is considered successful after the patient's return to normal diet with adequate nutrition, including vitamins and minerals. It is expected that through this therapy, the patient can go back in a gain of half to one kilogram per week.

Treatment of anorexia through psychological aspects

A number of psychological treatment can be applied to treat anorexia. Usually the treatment will last for half a year to one year, or even longer depending on the condition or the severity of anorexia sufferers.
One example method of treatment of anorexia through the psychological aspect is through behavioral therapy to change negative thought patterns. A person's behavior is usually the result of patterns of thought. Vice versa, the behavior can shape the mindset as well. Many things are not realistic believed as true by people with anorexia. For example they feel their self-esteem depends on their weight. They are very afraid of being ridiculed or disrespected by others because it is considered obese.
Therefore, through cognitive behavioral therapy, the therapist will try to help patients change the negative thoughts about food and the appearance of a pattern of positive thinking and realistic, so expect the deviant behavior of patients can be lost.
The second treatment method is through cognitive analytic therapy by tracking the patient's past. This therapy is based on the theory that the problem of mental health , including anorexia caused by patterns of thought and behavior is unhealthy formed since the patients were children or teenagers.
Cognitive analytic therapy involves three stages. The first stage is a reformulation. At this stage of reformulation, typically therapy specialist will find out the patient's experience in the past that might be the reason why the patterns are not healthy can grow. The second stage is the introduction. A therapist will help the patient to see and understand how the patterns of unhealthy contribute to anorexia. The third stage or the last stage is the revision. At this stage, a number of changes that can stop patterns of unhealthy are identified, assessed, and then applied.
The third treatment method is with interpersonal therapy to assess basing theory penderita.Terapi neighborhood to neighborhood relations with anorexia where the environment and the people around have a very strong influence in shaping the psychological state of sufferers. The theory concludes that low self-esteem and anxiety experienced by sufferers arising from the interaction with the people around.
During this therapy, the therapist will try to examine the negative things associated with the patient's interpersonal relationships and figuring out how to overcome the negative things.

The role of the family as part of the treatment of anorexia

The role of the family is very important to cure anorexia sufferers because usually the family are most likely to feel the impact of anorexia itself. Apart from having to try to understand the conditions that are being experienced by sufferers, families can also work closely with physicians in helping speed up the healing process.

Treatment of anorexia by using drugs

If anorexia is only overcome by taking drugs, usually the results will not be effective. The use of new drugs will be noticeably effective if combined with other therapies. Drugs are also used to treat psychological problems associated with anorexia, such as depression and obsessive compulsive disorder .
Drugs that may be provided include antidepressants, antipsychotics, and stabilizing mood . Examples of the drugs commonly given include olanzapine  and  selective serotonin reuptake inhabitors ( SSRIs).
SSRIs are antidepressants. This drug can help relieve depression and anxiety associated with anorexia. Usually the doctor will give this drug if a patient's weight is back to normal. Giving SSRIs to patients with normal body weight below could cause significant adverse side effects. While  olanzapine  is a drug that is usually given to anorexia sufferers who do not respond to other treatment methods. This drug can help relieve the anxiety associated with eating or weight.
Treatment of anorexia can not be done instantly. To recover fully, people could take a few years for any concomitant medication, some of them still had an eating disorder.

Complications Of Anorexia Nervosa

Some health problems or even death can occur if anorexia is not immediately addressed.Complications arise due to a lack of nutrients needed by the body, in this case food intake.
In addition to anorexia nervosa, there is a similar condition called bulimia nervosa . Some anorexics further bulimia. People with bulimia usually bingeing before they take it back to the way induce vomiting or taking laxatives.
Examples of complications that can arise as a result of anorexia among them is anemia, electrolyte fluid imbalance, constipation, decreased blood pressure and rate of breathing, irregular heartbeat, and even heart failure . People with anorexia also threatened to suffer damage to the liver, kidneys, and brain.
In children and adolescents, anorexia can inhibit physical development. In adults, especially women, these conditions can lead to osteoporosis , menstrual disorders , and infertility. Whereas in men, anorexia can lead to impotence and erectile dysfunction .
A pregnant woman who suffered from anorexia risk of miscarriage , premature birth, giving birth to low weight babies, and sometimes gave birth process should be assisted by cesarean section. Therefore, female patients with anorexia need to be monitored regularly by a doctor during pregnancy or after childbirth. When it is healed yet, supervision should be reconsidered if the woman became pregnant again because of the potential for relapse is quite large anorexia.