MEASLES : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

By trima sandhyka - Saturday, April 22, 2017 No Comments


DEFINITION OF MEASLES


Measles is a viral infection characterized by the appearance of a rash throughout the body and is highly contagious. Measles can be very disturbing and leads to more serious complications. Symptoms of measles begin to appear about one to two weeks after the virus enters the body. These symptoms include:

  • Red eye.
  • Eyes become sensitive to light.
  • Signs such as a cold (eg sore throat, runny nose, or nasal congestion).
  • Fever .
  • Grayish gray spots on the mouth and throat.
MEASLES : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication


Spots or a rash of red-brown will appear on the skin after a couple of days later. The order of occurrence of these spots from behind the ears, around the head, then to the neck. In the end the rash will spread throughout the body. In addition, patients also have the potential to experience swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck.
You should contact your doctor, clinic, or the nearest hospital if you suspect you or your child has measles. Diagnosis of measles can be done by looking at the symptoms that appear. But to ensure the diagnosis of measles, saliva and blood samples were taken for the test.
This disease is also called rubeola or red measles. Vaccines are available to prevent this disease. The vaccine for measles is included in part of the MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, German measles).

Measles Patients in Indonesia

The measles immunization program in Indonesia began in 1982. According to Ministry of Health data in 2015, Indonesia has coverage of measles immunization category in Southeast Asia, which is 84%. Indonesia is committed to achieving 95% coverage of measles immunization by the end of 2020. This is because measles are among the top 10 most common under-five mortality cases in Indonesia.
Data from the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia show that the incidence of measles has dropped significantly from a total of 18,488 cases by the end of 2007 to 8,185 cases by 2015. Despite the significant decline, the coverage of measles immunization still needs to be extended to all regions in Indonesia, Indonesia Measles Free by 2020.

Spread of Measles Virus

For people with measles, measles virus is present in the sparks of fluid released when they sneeze and cough. Measles viruses will infect anyone who inhale the sparks of this fluid.
Measles virus can survive on the surface for several hours and can survive stick to other objects. When we touch an object that has been splattered by measles virus and then put a hand to the nose or mouth, we can get infected.
Measles is more common in toddlers. But basically everyone can get infected with this virus, especially those who have not been exposed to measles or who have not received measles vaccination.

Measles Treatment

The human immune system will naturally fight off this viral infection. But if complications occur or measles infections become so severe, hospitalization is likely to be needed.
To speed up the recovery process, there are a few things that can help:
  • Drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration.
  • Many breaks and avoid sunlight as long as the eyes are still sensitive to light.
  • Drink fever-lowering medication and pain reliever. Do not give aspirin if your child is less than 16 years old.

Measles Complications

Complications from measles can be very dangerous. Although the number of people with measles complications is quite small, the disease must remain alert. Examples of complications are inflammation of the ear, bronchitis, lung infections (pneumonia), and brain infections (encephalitis).
Groups of people at risk for complications are:
  • The baby is under a year old.
  • Children with poor health conditions.
  • People with chronic illness.
  • People with weak immune systems.

Prevention of Measles

MMR vaccination is a joint vaccine for German measles, mumps and measles. MMR vaccination is given twice. The first is given when the child is 13 months old, then the next is given when they are aged 5-6 years or before entering elementary school.


MEASLES SYMPTOMS




The emergence of the first symptoms of measles occurred approximately one to two weeks after contracting the virus. These symptoms will disappear approximately two weeks thereafter. Here are the first signs that will be experienced by people with measles:
  • Eyes red, swollen, and sensitive to light.
  • Signs resembling a cold (eg, sore throat, dry cough, and runny nose).
  • Small patches of grayish white in the mouth and throat.
  • High fever.
  • Limp and tired.
  • Pain.
  • Do not get excited and loss of appetite.
  • Diarrhea
  • Throws up.
Measles rash appears later than four days after the first symptoms appear, and last about seven days. Initially will emerge from behind the ears, then spread to the head and neck, and finally to the whole body. Patches that had small will grow rapidly, and eventually converge.
You should immediately contact a doctor, clinic or hospital immediately if you suspect your child has measles.

TREATMENT OF MEASLES



The diagnosis of measles usually be enforced by a doctor just by looking at the characteristics of spots or a rash in the mouth and in the light of the symptoms you are experiencing.
However, in some cases, your doctor may advise you to do a simple blood test and examination of saliva viral culture to confirm the diagnosis. But both these tests are rarely done unless you show the symptoms are less obvious.
The human immune system will naturally resist the measles virus infection. There is no specific drug for dealing with measles. The condition of patients usually get better without treatment within one to two weeks.
Before the immune system fight viral infections, the condition of the body will feel uncomfortable due to the symptoms of measles are experiencing. There are several ways that can help the immune system fight the measles virus, among them:

Increase fluid intake

Give plenty of water to avoid dehydration in children. Water consumption also can relieve itchy throat due to cough. Remember that when the body has a fever, the need for fluid increases.

Controlling fever and Reduce Pain

Generally, for an adult who has a fever and pain, take paracetamol or ibuprofen can be done. You can also give paracetamol in liquid form for your child.

Medications During and After Measles Attack

Drugs such as vitamin A and antibiotics may be prescribed by a doctor after symptoms appear. In addition, measles vaccination choice is also available. For example, measles prevention injections that can be given 72 hours after symptoms appear or an injection of immune serum globulin for infants or pregnant women after 6 days of exposure to the virus. Talk to your doctor to find the right treatment for you or a child.

Overcoming Eye Hospital

Use a cotton cloth soaked in water to clean the eyes during measles infection. Eye measles patients will become more sensitive to light. To overcome this, close the window with curtains or replacing dimmer lights at night.

Treating Other Symptoms his          

There may appear similar symptoms such as runny nose like a runny nose or cough. You can consume a warm drink to relieve these symptoms. In addition, you can do therapy inhalation of vapors.
For small children, you can bathe with warm water. Warm drinks containing lemon and honey can be given in small children. Keep in mind that giving honey is not recommended for children under one year.

Wary of Emerging Diseases Serious

Be aware of the possibility of complications when the body is fighting the infection. Signs of a more serious condition is:
  • Decreased consciousness, marked one with constantly feel sleepy.
  • Symptoms of dehydration, such as dry mouth or decreased frequency of urination.
  • Coughing up blood.
  • Convulsions.
  • Confusion.
  • Shortness of breath .
  • Pain in the chest, especially when breathing.
Call or come directly to the nearest hospital if you or a family member experiencing the symptoms above.



MEASLES COMPLICATIONS



Although rare, measles can lead to serious complications. Infants and children with malnutrition are the most vulnerable to catching measles. In addition to those, the immune people are low (eg AIDS sufferers, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or chronic disease sufferers) and pregnant women are also susceptible to contracting.

Below is a measles complication that can happen:
  • Seizures due to fever.
  • Eye infections.
  • Middle ear infections.
  • Respiratory and lung infections (eg pneumonia and bronchitis).
  • Dehydration.
  • Inflammation of the vocal cords.
As for the rare measles complications are:
  • Meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord).
  • Encephalitis (brain infection).
  • Eyes squint due to viral effects on the nerves and muscles of the eye.
  • Hepatitis or liver infection.
  • Problems with the nervous system and heart.
  • Optic neuritis or inflammation of the eye nerve that can cause permanent blindness.
  • Thrombocytopenia or decreased platelet counts that are functioning to freeze blood.
  • Pregnancy problems (eg miscarriage, premature infants, or low-birth weight babies).
Children aged over 1 year with healthy body condition rarely have complications.




PREVENTION OF MEASLES


The best way to prevent measles is by immunization since childhood. There are two choices of measles vaccination. The first is a measles-specific vaccine that the government enters into a compulsory immunization program. This vaccine is given at the age of 9 months, 2 years, and 6 years. The second type of vaccine is the MMR which is a joint vaccine for measles, mumps and German measles. This vaccine is given at the age of 12-13 months and at the age of 3-5 years.

A newborn will have antibodies against measles if the mother has had measles or has received measles vaccinations before becoming pregnant. These antibodies will provide protection for the first few months. Therefore, a special vaccine for measles or MMR should be given when the baby is over half a year old.
Both types of measles vaccine above are not recommended for pregnant women who have not been protected from measles. But for women who want to get pregnant and have not been exposed to measles, he could be vaccinated against measles. See a doctor for more information about measles and its effects on pregnant women.
Measles is very contagious. If you suffer from measles, avoid the crowded center at least four days after the appearance of the measles rash for the first time. This is important to avoid infections spread to others. Avoid direct contact with people susceptible to viral infections such as toddlers, young children, and pregnant women.
source: https://www.hzrtg.com/2017/04/measles.html

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