IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA - understanding, symptom, Cause, Diagnosis, Treatment, complication

By trima sandhyka - Tuesday, April 11, 2017 No Comments

Understanding Iron Deficiency Anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is a condition of nutritional iron deficiency resulting in a decrease in the number of red blood cells. Anemia occurs when the body experiences a deficiency of red blood cells healthy and functioning properly. In this page, anemia due to iron deficiency will be discussed further.
Iron is  necessary for the body to produce red blood cell components known as hemoglobin. Hemoglobin in the red blood cells needed by the body to bind and carry oxygen from the lungs to all organs. It plays a role in the disposal of carbon dioxide from the body cells in the lungs. If the human body is a shortage of red blood cells, the spread of oxygen and carbon dioxide disposal will be disrupted.

This type of anemia is common in people of all ages, including children, with patients more women than men. Most cases of anemia occurs in a country that is still developing, including Indonesia. Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common type of anemia.

Anemia In Indonesia or world

Indonesia is a country with a fairly high level of anemia cases. Lack of iron to be one of the biggest nutritional problem in Indonesia. Children, pregnant women and women who are in the fertile age have the highest risk of suffering from anemia.
The following are some of the causes of anemia in Indonesia:
  • Malnutrition or poor nutrition is the number one cause of anemia in Indonesia. Iron intake Indonesian people still lacking due to inadequate intake of nutrients derived from animal. Rice and vegetable materials become the main food everyday Indonesian people, but meat is also necessary because it has a high iron content. The diversity of the diet has an important role in the intake of sufficient iron.
  • Tea and coffee drinking habits among Indonesia also has a strong influence in the high rate of anemia in Indonesia. Tea and coffee contains substances that can inhibit the absorption of iron by the human body.
  • Indonesia is also included in the group of countries with a high thalassemia patients. Thalassemia is a genetic or hereditary disease that results in the sufferer experiencing a shortage of hemoglobin and red blood cells. This often leads to anemia.
  • In Indonesia, many people who take antacid medication due to  stomach ulcers  or problems with  stomach acid . Antacids are taken before meals will reduce the production of stomach acid, but this would have an impact on the decrease iron absorption.
Women who experience excessive menstrual likely to suffer from anemia. This happens because of the amount of blood is wasted, that is the cause of anemia in women of childbearing age.
Anemia is also common in pregnant women. In pregnancy, women increased need for iron because the fetus in the womb helped absorb iron and vitamins in order to grow normally. 

Symptoms Resultant Iron Deficiency Anemia

The level of the symptoms of anemia depend on how quickly the body's iron stores decreased. There are people who have almost all the symptoms, while there are some who just feel tired. Here are the  symptoms of anemia  are common:
  • Easier or quicker tired
  • Easily offended
  • Less energy
  • Pale face
  • Hard to breathe
  • Difficulty concentrating or thinking.
  • Dizziness  and  headaches
  • Feet and hands cold
  • Tingling sensations in the legs
  • Swollen or sore tongue
  • Decreased immune system so prone to infection
  • Pain in the chest
  • Heart was beating fast
Other signs that could arise due to anemia is becoming brittle nails,  hair loss , and decreased appetite.
If you feel the above symptoms, see your doctor to make sure the steps  diagnosis of anemia .

Treatment and Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia

Taking supplements of iron enhancer made to improve iron levels in the body. This action as one of the  treatment of anemia . Iron intake through food consumption also needs to be improved, it is for the sake of maintaining a backup and normal iron levels. There are some food sources of iron are very nice, for example:
  • Chicken liver and beef liver
  • Nuts, such as black beans, green beans, and red beans
  • Tofu and tempeh
  • Seafood or seafood such as fish, oysters and mussels
  • Dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach and broccoli
  • Lean red meat such as beef and mutton
  • Dried fruits, such as raisins and apricots
In order to maximize the absorption of iron, the intake of  vitamin C  is also required. Consumption of foods high in iron content in conjunction with a source of vitamin C such as oranges, kiwi and tomato.
Basically,  the cause of anemia  can vary. In order not to develop into a chronic condition, the underlying cause needs to be identified and addressed. If left untreated, anemia is generally easy to handle, it can have lasting impact on the sufferer's body.

Complications of Iron Deficiency Anemia

If iron deficiency anemia is not handled properly, could eventually lead to  complications of  other diseases. Iron deficiency adversely affect the human immune system. This is what makes you more susceptible to other diseases.
Iron deficiency anemia can also result in the occurrence of  heart failure , which is when the heart's performance declined and can not pump blood around the body properly.
For pregnant women, anemia increases the risk of complications in the mother and fetus. Complications that can occur for example, is  a miscarriage , fetal growth is slow or is not normal, and premature birth.

Symptoms Of Iron Deficiency Anemia

  • easily fatigued
  • Easily offended
  • Appetite decreased. Especially if this condition occurs in infants or children.
  • Less energy
  • Hard to breathe
  • Pale face
  • Difficulty concentrating or thinking.
  • Dizziness  and  headaches
  • Loss of appetite
  • Hands and feet kept cold
  • Feel tingling in the feet
  • Swollen or sore tongue
  • Decreased immune system so prone to infection
  • Pain in the chest
  • Nails become brittle or easily broken
  • The hair is easily broken or fall
  • Palpitations or pounding heart thrill
Blood tests can be performed to confirm the diagnosis of anemia. Blood tests can also show if there is a deficiency  of iron  or other substances required in the production of healthy red blood cells. See your doctor immediately if you experience symptoms such as the above.

Causes Of Iron Deficiency Anemia


There are many factors that can cause iron deficiency anemia. Here are the factors that cause along with an explanation.

Sickle cell

Sickle cell anemia is caused by genetic factors. There are many conditions in which red blood cells are defective, so it can not carry enough oxygen to the entire body. Defective hemoglobin will make red blood cells to change shape when oxygen is released into the body's tissues. Normally the shape of red blood cells is a form of coins with the middle layer is thinner than the edges. In this anemia red blood cells will be altered to resemble a crescent, friable, and clot. This type of anemia has no cure, treatment used to relieve symptoms and also preventing other disorders that accompany this condition.

malnutrition

Inadequate intake  of iron  in the diet causes anemia number one in Indonesia. The scarcity of varying the diet becomes a major factor that causes anemia. Patients with anemia need to increase the amount of consumption of foods rich in iron and make a diet that meets the concept of 'balanced nutrition guidelines'. Foods such as spinach, tofu, broccoli, fish and red meat has a high iron content.

thalassemia

Thalassemia is a genetic disease that causes the sufferer to produce defective hemoglobin and easily damaged. The level of thalassemia patients in Indonesia is quite high compared to other countries. If not treated or controlled properly, thalassemia patients at high risk for anemia.

Pregnancy and Iron Growing Needs

The gestation period is the most vulnerable time for women to be exposed to iron deficiency anemia. There are some pregnant women require supplemental iron enhancer. There are women who only need to increase the amount of iron in their diet. During pregnancy, women increased need for iron because of the growing fetus needs iron absorbed from the mother's blood.
Excessive bleeding during childbirth can also trigger the emergence of iron deficiency anemia in women.

Excessive bleeding is when Menstruation

Menstruation  or menstruation is a common cause of iron deficiency anemia in women in the productive or fertile period. Anemia may arise when excessive bleeding in some of the menstrual cycle. This condition is known as  menorrhagia .

Food and Drugs Inhibit Iron Absorption

Indonesia habits of people who love to eat tea and coffee can inhibit the absorption of iron into the body. Chocolate has the same effect in inhibiting the absorption of iron. These types of foods contain substances tannins,  oxalate  and  phytate  that prevents the absorption of iron in the body's digestive system.
Drugs  heartburn  known as antacids also have the same effect. Antacids may reduce the production of stomach acid, but that can be absorbed by the intestine, the content of iron in the diet needs to be presented in advance of gastric acid.

Side Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Non-steroidal (NSAID)

In addition, the use of  ibuprofen  and aspirin in the long term also can cause bleeding in the digestive system. Both drugs are classified in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs have side effects that can cause ulcers or lesions in the stomach wall. If left unchecked, wounds in the stomach lining can bleed continuously and slowly, so that eventually lead to anemia.

malabsorption

Malabsorption is a condition when the body can not absorb nutrients, including iron from the body digest food. Malabsorption conditions can also cause iron deficiency anemia. Eg malabsorption can occur in the following circumstances:
  • Patients with celiac disease or gluten intolerance
  • Intestinal intolerance to certain food ingredients such as lactose in milk
  • Patients with  Crohn's disease
  • Patients with  ulcerative colitis
  • Postoperative removal of the stomach known as gastrectomy

Worm infection Mine

Hookworms are parasites that live in the human intestine. Many people who are infected with hookworm and do not realize it, because this condition does not have significant symptoms. Hookworm absorb and digest the red blood cells of the intestinal wall. Severe infection can cause loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, and iron deficiency anemia. If left untreated, hookworm infection can eventually interfere with mental development, intellectual and cognitive.

Other things as Trigger Anemia

Aside from the already mentioned above, there are several factors that make people affected by iron deficiency anemia:
  • Motorcycle or car accident can make a person lose a lot of blood. Take some time for the level of red blood cells and the body's iron stores accident victims can recover.
  • Donating blood is too often and in large quantities can cause anemia.
  • Physical endurance training.
  • People who do not eat meat or vegetarian are also more at risk of iron deficiency anemia.
Anemia can also occur in people who are  bleeding  excessively or frequently. Especially in the elderly, anemia can result from  chronic kidney failure , stomach cancer, and  colon cancer .

Diagnosis Of Iron Deficiency Anemia


If you experience symptoms of anemia, immediately went to the nearest clinic or hospital. Tell your doctor about your symptoms. To see if you really are suffering from anemia can be done with a blood test procedure.
Blood tests a person suffering from anemia due to deficiency  of iron  will show the results as follows:
  • Red blood cell levels below normal
  • The volume of red blood cells are smaller
  • Hemoglobin levels below normal
  • Ferritin level below normal
Ferritin is a protein that stores iron in the body. If the ferritin level below normal, the supply of iron have been used and there is not much iron is available again.
Folate and  vitamin B12  also plays a role in producing red blood cells to function properly. When the body of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, anemia may occur.
For female patients who experience  menstrual excessive or menorrhagia , it is advisable to check the pelvic area to see if there are any signs of infection or cause bleeding. This examination can be performed with ultrasound procedures.
If it is determined you are suffering from iron deficiency anemia, you may be asked to live endoscopic examination and colonoscopy. Endoscopy is done to look at the source of bleeding in the esophagus and is also part of the stomach. While colonoscopy is performed to check the source of bleeding around the inner wall of the colon.

Treatment Of Iron Deficiency Anemia



The basic cause of iron deficiency anemia should be identified. This is done to prevent the re-emergence of this condition. If anemia is not treated and becomes chronic, complications can occur.
For patients with iron deficiency anemia caused by lack of nutrition, you can see a specialist in nutrition. They can assist in determining which diet is rich intake of  iron . 

Increase Iron Intake From Food Menu

Dietary changes, both type and quantity, is very important in the treatment of anemia. Although rice is included in our staple food, we need to consume nutrients from other foods. We can reduce the dose of the rice and add more foods rich in iron like spinach, beef, and chicken livers.
Pregnant women are advised to increase the intake of iron. Babies in the womb requires a blood supply and sufficient iron. The addition of iron can come from food or supplements besi.Tanyakan enhancer substance to a gynecologist about drug dosage and the rules of use of supplements that you can consume.
Foods rich in  vitamin C  also helps the absorption of iron. Foods rich in vitamin C are broccoli, oranges, kiwi, tomatoes and red peppers.
Here is a list of foods with good sources of iron:
  • Chicken liver and beef liver.
  • Legumes such as black beans, green beans, red beans.
  • Tofu and tempeh.
  • Seafood or seafood such as oysters, clams and fish.
  • Green vegetables such as spinach and broccoli.
  • Lean red meat.
  • Dried fruits such as raisins and apricots.
Look for foods that are fortified or supplemented with iron. In step eradicate iron deficiency, the government has encouraged the supply of rice and wheat were higher iron content.

Use Supplements Enhancer Iron

Iron enhancer supplements are most often recommended is iron sulfate. This supplement in tablet form and is usually taken two to three times a day.
For people with  stomach ulcers , iron enhancer supplements should be taken two hours before or four hours after taking antacid medication. This is because the antacid drugs can inhibit the absorption of iron. If you are not able to eat by mouth, then the patient can include enhancer supplements of iron intravenously.
In some areas in Indonesia, iron enhancer supplements provided by the government free of charge to pregnant mothers.

Transfusion of Red Blood Cells (RBC)

Patients who experience severe symptoms of iron deficiency anemia and threatened the safety of his soul, should immediately seek treatment red blood cell transfusion (RBC). Because, if handled with iron enhancer supplements the patient's body needs more time to absorb iron. Red blood cell transfusions may save the lives of patients with severe iron deficiency anemia. Treatment with iron supplements will be done once the condition of the patient is stable.

Reducing Food and Drugs Inhibiting Iron Absorption

Indonesia habits of people who like to consume tea-based drinks also be one factor of many cases of anemia in Indonesia. Tea contains substances that can inhibit the absorption of iron in the human body. Here is a list of foods and other beverages could inhibit iron absorption:
  • Foods containing  calcium  are high such as milk and yogurt
  • Basil leave
  • Celery leaves
  • Mint leaves
  • Chocolate
  • Coffee
  • Berries such as strawberries and blueberries
  • walnuts
There are several drugs that can interfere with the absorption of iron by the body such as antacids and  proton pump inhibitors  (PPI) to treat stomach ulcers and digestive system.

Preventing Gastric Due Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Non-steroidal (NSAID)

Those who take NSAIDs on a regular basis over the long term side effects need to be aware of the occurrence  of gastric ulcers . Peptic ulcers arise when erosions or sores in the lining of the stomach wall. These sores can bleed slowly so that eventually the body lacks red blood cells and iron stores. After some time, if the ulcer is left, anemia occurs. Therefore, those taking NSAIDs is recommended to consume them with foods, reduce alcohol consumption and smoking, as well as taking antacid medication. All these aim to prevent the formation of ulcers.

Mine treat worm infections

Anemia due to hookworm infections occur due to this parasitic worm eating your blood. In addition to anemia, hookworm can cause complications such as malnutrition, thereby inhibiting the growth of the child. In pregnant women, hookworms can lead to premature birth and low birth weight babies.
Treatment of hookworm aim at eliminating existing infections, improving nutrition, and treating complications of anemia. The doctor will prescribe a medicine that destroys parasitic worms, such as  albendazole  and  mebendazole . Both drugs were used to treat worm infections. Treatment is usually given about one to three days. Patients with anemia will be given an extra prescription iron supplement enhancer.

treat Thalassemia

Thalassemia is a genetic or hereditary disease that results in the sufferer experiencing a shortage of hemoglobin and red blood cells. Indonesia is also included in the group of countries with a high thalassemia patients.
Patients with thalassemia need blood and its hemoglobin level control to guard against anemia sustainable. The addition of supplements and drugs would be recommended if it happens anemia.



Complications Of Iron Deficiency Anemia


In Indonesia, anemia is a chronic disease or long-term. Nutrition Incomplete be the cause of chronic anemia, and consequently, the complications that occur quite alarming.

In Young Children

Continuous Anemia in children will be very influential in their lives in the future. The most feared complication is the process of their growth and development are hampered. Without sufficient nutrients and oxygen, mental development, intellectual and cognitive abilities can be hampered. Energy and the ability of children to physical activity is also reduced if you are anemic. In the end, all of this can adversely affect their emotional and social functioning. Behavior and academic performance of children even more disadvantaged than children the same age who did not have anemia.
Additionally, anemia also cause a decline in immune defense. Children who suffer from anemia becomes more susceptible to various infections.
To prevent anemia in children, especially infants, give them breast milk or formula fortified iron during the first year. After the first year, do not give milk exceeded 700 milliliters per day. Because the consumption of milk is too much to replace other foods that may be rich in iron content. Cow's milk is not a good source of iron for infants, if they are still under a year old, cow's milk is not recommended.

In Pregnant Women

Iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women is associated with maternal mortality. Anemia in pregnant women should be wary. Complications experienced by women who are pregnant can be fatal, both in the mother and fetus. Anemia in pregnant women can lead to:
  • Infant growth inhibition.
  • Birth prematurely.
  • Babies born with low weight.
  • Infants are more vulnerable to infection at birth.
  • The death of babies in the womb can occur in conditions of severe anemia.

Adult

Iron deficiency anemia also have harmful effects on adults if allowed to drag on. People suffering from anemia is easy to feel tired and less energetic. This means that the level of productivity will be reduced. The person will also be more susceptible to disease due to a weak immune.
Anemia protracted can cause damage to various organs such as the kidneys, heart and lungs. Heart disease  is also aggravated if left untreated anemia. In severe cases,  heart failure  can occur.
Consult a doctor if you experience symptoms of iron deficiency anemia. Treatment and early treatment can help the recovery well.

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